CAPITULUM XX – GRAMMATICA

 

I.          Future Tense

 

In this Chapter we learn the forms of the future tense.  This tense refers to actions or conditions or events that will occur or are going to happen.

 

Example (lines 34-36): Initiō pater eum sustinēbit ac manū dūcet, mox vērō īnfāns sōlus ambulāre incipiet neque ā parentibus sustinēbitur neque manū dūcētur.  ("At first the father will hold him up and lead him by the hand, but soon the infant will begin to walk by himself and will not be supported by his parents and led by the hand.") 

 

Here is a chart for the forms in the active voice:

 

 

 

first

second

third

fourth

esse

singular

ego

amābō

habēbō

regam

audiam

erō

 

amābis

habēbis

regēs

audiēs

eris

 

is, ea, id

amābit

habēbit

reget

audiet

erit

plural

nōs

amābimus

habēbimus

regēmus

audiēmus

erimus

 

vōs

amābitis

habēbitis

regētis

audiētis

eritis

 

iī, eae, ea

amābunt

habēbunt

regent

audient

erunt

 

and here is a chart for the forms in the passive voice:

 

 

 

first

second

third

fourth

 

singular

ego

amābor

habēbor

regar

audiar

 

 

amāberis

habēberis

regēris

audiēris

 

 

is, ea, id

amābitur

habēbitur

regētur

audiētur

 

plural

nōs

amābimur

habēbimur

regēmur

audiēmur

 

 

vōs

amābiminī

habēbiminī

regēminī

audiēminī

 

 

iī, eae, ea

amābuntur

habēbuntur

regentur

audientur

 

 

A.     As this indicates the tense sign for first and second conjugations verbs is “bi” and for verbs in the third and fourth conjugations is “ē.”  There is some irregularity in the first person singular and in the third person plural, which just needs to be learned. 

 

B.     Basically you need to be attentive to spelling/pronunciation.  If there is a “bo” or “bi” or “bu” in a first or second conjugation verb it is referring to something in the future.  The same thing applies if a third or fourth conjugation verb has an “a” or an “e” in it where it would have an “o” or an “i” or a “u” if it were referring to something in the present.

 

C.      Note, however, that in conditional statements (ones that have in them), our English idiom usually doesn’t use a “will” or a “shall” in the “if” clause.

 

Example (lines 90-91): vix ūnam hōram dormīre poterimus, sī īnfāns vāgiet.  ("We will scarcely be able to sleep an hour, if the baby cries.")

 

 

 

II.  Irregular verbs velle and nōlle  - to want/be willing/wish; to not want, be unwilling, wish not.  Here is a chart:

 

 

 

velle

nōlle

singular

ego

volō

nōlō

 

vīs

nōn vīs

 

is, ea, id

vult

nōn vult

plural

nōs

volumus

nōlumus

 

vōs

vultis

nōn vultis

 

iī, eae, ea

volunt

nōlunt

 

 

III.       Domus is like cities, towns and small islands

A.       The accusative domum is used without a preposition to express motion toward home.  Post scholam nōs omnēs domum ībimus.  ("After school we will all go home.")

B.       The ablative domō is used without a preposition to express motion away from home.  Mane nōs omnēs domō ad scholam adīmus.  ("In the morning we all go from home to school.")

C.       The locative domī is used without a preposition to express location at home.  Aegrī puerī domī manent neque ad scholam eunt. ("Sick children stay at home and do not go to school.")

 

III.       Verbs with special cases

A.       Carēre (to be without, to lack, to want) governs an ablative of the thing which is lacking or wanting.  Dīvitēs pecuniā nōn carent.  ("Rich people do not lack money.")

B.       Occurrere (to run up against, to run into, to encounter, to meet, to occur) governs a dative of whom or what is run into or up against or encountered or met.  Syra, peristylum unā cum Iūliā intrāns, dominae suae in ōstiō occurrit.  ("Syra, as she is entering the peristyle at the same time as Julia, meets her mistress in the doorway.")

 

IV.        More forms of nōs and vōs

A.       The ablative of “us” and “you” is nōbīs and vōbīs.

B.       The dative of “us” and “you” is nōbīs and  vōbīs..