CAPITULUM XXI – GRAMMATICA

 

I.       Perfect Tense

 

In this Chapter we learn about the perfect tense (tempus praeteritum perfectum): the forms of the perfect tense personal endings, the perfect stem for verbs of the four conjugations and some irregular verbs, the pattern of the perfect passive forms, how the perfect tense is to be understood, the infinitives in the active and passive voices and how to interpret them.  This tense refers to actions or conditions or events that once happened and are now finished.  Here is a chart for the forms in the active voice:

 

 

 

first

second

third

fourth

esse

 

stem:

amāv-

habu-

rēx-

audīv-

 

singular

ego

amāvī

habuī

rēxī

audīvī

fuī

 

amāvistī

habuistī

rēxistī

audīvistī

fuistī

 

is, ea, id

amāvit

habuit

rēxit

audīvit

fuit

plural

nōs

amāvimus

habuimus

rēximus

audīvimus

fuimus

 

vōs

amāvistis

habuistis

rēxistis

audīvistis

fuistis

 

iī, eae, ea

amāvērunt

habuērunt

rēgērunt

audīvērunt

fuērunt

 

and here is a chart for the forms in the passive voice:

 

first

second

third

fourth

amātus, -a, -um sum

habitus, -a, -um sum

rēctus, -a, -um sum

audītus, -a, -um sum

amātus, -a, -um es

habitus, -a, -um es

rēctus, -a, -um es

audītus, -a, -um es

amātus, -a, um est

habitus, -a, um est

rēctus, -a, -um est

audītus, -a, -um est

amātī, -ae, -a sumus

habitī, -ae, -a sumus

rēctī, -ae, -a sumus

audītī, -ae, -a sumus

amātī, -ae, -a estis

habitī, -ae, -a estis

rēctī, -ae, -a estis

audītī, -ae, -a estis

amātī, -ae, -a sunt

habitī, -ae, -a sunt

rēctī, -ae, -a sunt

audītī, -ae, -a sunt

 

A.   Compare this tense with the imperfect (tempus praeteritum imperfectum): Iūlia cantābat.  Tum Mārcus eam pulsāvit.  Julia was singing.  Then Marcus hit her.

 

B.    Compare it also with the present.  Iūlia plōrat quia Mārcus eam pulsāvit.  Julia is crying because Marcus has hit her.

 

C.    The stem to which the new set of personal endings are added is different from the present stem:

 

1.    First and Fourth conjugation regular verbs – add v to the present stem: pulsā + v = pulsāv-, e.g., Malī puerī pūnīti sunt quia eī parvās puellās pulsāvērunt.

2.    Second conjugation regular verbs – change the ē to u: tenē tenu, e.g., Quīntus plōrat quia Mārcus eum sub aquā in impluviō tenuit.

3.    Third conjugation regular verbs – there are several different patterns; for the most part these will have to be learned by observation.